Within the framework of the process of scientific study, projective research requires a series of steps before suggesting new actions of change to the proposed reality. These steps have to do with the exploratory, descriptive and analytical phases of the research process.

Within the field of research, the projective is one of the most complex. In this one, each of the steps of the scientific method is applied in a very complete way.

Characteristics of Projective Research

1. Dynamics

It sets out the events that happen in one or more periods. In the same way it specifies the relationship between these.

2. Holistic

It integrates all the elements that occur in certain contexts for their interpretation and projection in time.

3. Creative

It allows to generate new proposals with freedom, analyzing all the scenarios.

4. Participatory

It involves all actors in each of the parts of the research and planning process.


Visualizes and projects actions towards specific objectives that can be developed in the future. In this regard, a particular context changes.

6. Design plans and/or projects

The design of plans is done with the aim of improving a reality or a certain context.

7. Systematics

It proposes processes and methods of inquiry, analysis, explanation and prediction. This is particularly useful when projecting the proposal or plan.

8. Proactive

It proposes new actions to change situations. This with the aim of improving the environment and solving the problem and the functioning of the analyzed context.

Projective Research Methodology

1. Exploratory phase of Projective Research

In this first phase, studies prior to the topic or context to be developed are explored. This with the idea of observing the applied methodology, the contributions and scopes, as well as the theories and related concepts.

The event or context to be modified, the problem encountered and the need for the projection to be raised are stated.

2. Descriptive phase

This section describes the current situations and needs for change in the different realities explored. In addition, the arguments that justify the new project to be executed are given.

The objectives of the research – both general and specific – are set out. This with the aim of showing the actions that will delimit the study and the project.

3. Comparative phase

Inquire about causal elements (as well as other events). In the same way, it compares them with the event to be modified.

Approximations and differences between the groups are determined. It also compares the various theories and concepts of the authors consulted, as well as preliminary studies.

4. Analytical phase

In this area, the interactions of the study subjects are examined. It is done in the light of the different theories considering their interests, agreements, divergences or expectations.

Theories are ordered and considered chronologically. In this regard, the context in which they were developed must be taken into account. In addition, it is carried out to address the causal processes of the studied situation and the event to be changed or improved.

5. Explanatory phase. Improving the event through Projective Research

The different interpretations and explanations of the design, plan or program, both external and internal, are presented. The objective is to achieve the functional and practical improvement of the event to be modified.

6. Predictive phase

It proposes the feasibility of the project taking into account the evaluation of limitations and difficulties. They are found throughout its execution.

The different resources available for the execution of the project in the environment that you want to transform are evaluated. This includes financial, material, human and technological resources.

Depending on the data collected, both general and specific objectives are also adjusted. Finally, they are documented.

7. Projective phase. Conducting the projective research itself.

It focuses on the design of the project. Selects the units of study and operationalizes the variables and diagnostic instruments.

8. Interactive phase

It applies the instruments and collects data from reality in the study of the event to be changed and the causal processes.

9. Confirmatory phase

Analyzes and concludes with a design, proposal or action plan. The elements that are considered within this design are the following:

– Description of the program, its specific statement and the events that you want to change. The project modality must be specified.

– Identification of recipients and responsible parties. In this way, the profile of each group of subjects who are involved in the program is described.

– Purpose of the program. This has to do with the specific goals or achievements that are intended to be achieved with the plan or program.

– Theme and content, which refers to the areas of knowledge related to the actions to be executed within the plan.

– Development of activities. This describes the actions to be executed by areas or events of the program.

– Time. That is, the duration of each area or phase of the program. This is represented by a timeline.

– The locations. The geographical space is determined and the social and cultural contexts of the program or plan are identified.

– The media. It involves delimiting the different material, technological, human and technical resources. They are essential for the implementation of the plan.

– Financial resources. It is the section in which it is identified which and how many are the economic resources. Financial tools that allow the development of the project are also detailed.

10. Evaluation phase. The last phase of Projective Research

Shows the scope of the project in the final document. Likewise, it recommends different actions for the executing or interactive phase of the event that is intended to improve or change.

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Characteristics and methodology of Projective Research

Characteristics and methodology of Projective Research


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