What are APA Standards?

In the preparation of a thesis, there are rules that must be complied with, such as the editorial style that regulates the format of the writing to ensure a clear and consistent presentation. The APA Standards are standards created by the American Psychological Association, in order to unify the form of presentation of written works at an international level, designed especially for undergraduate projects or any type of research documents.

Paper Size

Make sure that the paper size you are using in Word is the correct size to present your work in the APA format.

The page size setting in Word should be Letter Size, which measures 21.59 cm x 27.94 cm (equivalent to 8 1/2 x 11 inches).

This is the standard measure of most word processors like Word. However, you should always check the correct paper size before starting your work on APA.

It is important to note, the paper used should not have any type of decal, adhesive tape, glue or staple.

Alignment and Indentation in APA Standards

The APA recommendation is that the length of each line of text should be maximum 61/2 inches, i.e. 16.51 cm (is the width of the page size in letter format minus the size of the margins of at least 1 inch, i.e. 2.54 cm, on each side).

Left alignment must be used throughout the document. That is, the right margin will be "irregular". Text justification should not be used, unless the university requests otherwise.

Margins

The size of the margins in APA format must be 2.54 cm (equivalent to 1 inch) on all sides. That is, you must apply a margin of 2.54 cm to the top, bottom, right and left margin.

Margins for bound work

Dissertations and theses may have different margin requirements if they are bound. For example, left margin of 1.5 inches (3.81 cm). This point may vary according to each university.

Paragraph indentation

The first line of each paragraph of text should have a 1/2" indent. (1.27 cm) from the left margin. You can use the Tab key or, ideally, set the paragraph style in Word to achieve indentation. Never use the spaces bar to achieve this effect.

If you carry out a research or a work where you use statistical data, numbers or sums you must write the number, for example: "80% of the studied population showed to have linguistic resources according to their level of education".

From the index (table of contents), list of tables, list of annexes, images and others as dedications and preface if they are displayed but in Roman numerals (I, II, III... etc.). The rest is in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3... etc.).

Typeface

As for the font, the font will be Times New Roman, size 12, with a leading number 2, justified alignment

With seventh edition

In addition, with the new APA format (seventh edition) the following fonts with their respective size will be accepted:

  • Arial (11 points)
  • Georgia (11 points)
  • Calibri (11 points)
  • Lucida Sans Unicode (10 points)

Separation of syllables

Don't insert automatic scripts, or manual jumps into your research. It's acceptable to separate long links (as in a DOI or URL in a reference list entry, but make sure the links are up and running).

Numbering

With respect to the numbering of the pages, they should be listed in the upper-right corner. On the cover and back cover you should start the numbering but here it should not be displayed.

Cover

The cover should contain: Name of the university, company or institution that recognizes you as a researcher; faculty where you study or department where you work (depends on the case) and area where you develop. All this centered on the top edge of the sheet.

With seventh edition

You can make the cover with the new format established by the APA manual respecting the centering of the text, the numbering in the upper right corner and the following order:

  • Title of the project
  • Author
  • Affiliation, college or university
  • Course
  • Name of teacher
  • Date

Title

The title of your research should be sheet-centered and bold, with a maximum of 15 words.

At the bottom and centered you will place your full name as the author of the researcher, then the country, city and date.

Paragraph indent and inline exceptions

  • Cover: Title and affiliations should be centered.
  • Titles and subtitles: Some levels of titles and subtitles have different alignment. The level 1 title should be centered, the level 2 and 3 subtitles should be left-aligned (no bleeding), and the level 4 and 5 titles should be indented like the regular paragraphs.
  • Document sections: Section titles (Summary, References, Appendix, Tables, Figures) should be centered.
  • Abstract: The first line of the first paragraph of the summary should be undented.
  • Block citations: Block citations (citations with more than 40 words) should use an indentation of 1/2 (1.27 cm) from the left margin. If the block citation has more than one paragraph, the first line of the second paragraph as well as subsequent paragraphs should bleed more than 1/2 in. (1.27 cm). So the first line has a total indentation of 1 in. (2.54 cm).
  • Tables and figures: table and figure numbers, table and figure titles, and notes should be left-aligned (undentistated).
  • Reference list: Entries in the bibliographic reference list must have a hanging indent of 1/2 (1.27 cm).
  • Appendix: The labels and titles of the appendices must be centered.

APA Title Hierarchy

Below you will see how each level of title and subtitle should be configured. Note that in the seventh edition, all title levels are bold and all are with each word in the title starting in uppercase

Level 1 Centered • Bold • Every Word Starting in CapitalIzation
Text starts in new paragraph
Level 2 Left Aligned • Bold • Every Word Starting in Capital Letters
Text starts in new paragraph
Level 3 Left Aligned • Bold • Italics • Every Word Starting in Capital Letters
Text starts in new paragraph
Level 4 Left aligned • Bold • Every Word Starting in Capital Letter • Indented 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) • With end point. Text starts on the same line
Level 5 Left Aligned • Bold • Italics • Each Word Starting in Capital Letters • Indented 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) • With end point. Text starts on the same line

References in the APA Standards

Citations are essays that are extracted in a "textual" way from a book, website, blog, magazine, etc. without modifying their wording, respecting the author.

What is cited?

  • Someone else's ideas, opinions, or theories.
  • The data, statistics, graphs, images – any information – that is not public knowledge (facts for which it is not necessary to cite the source).
  • Any reference to someone else's words.
  • The paraphrase of someone else's words.

What should we cite for?

For:

  • Expand a text.
  • Reinforce or clarify an idea.
  • Argue or refer to the sources on which the work is based.
  • Refer to other sections of the text.
  • Start a discussion.
  • Give a definition.

Quotes of less than 40 words

When the quotation is less than 40 words, it is written in the text, in quotation marks and without italics. A period is entered after the appointment and all data is finished.

Author-Based Citation

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible wire. Kabu (2009), states: "This means that, in a sense, what happens to us instantly affects things in the far reaches of the universe (...). In a sense there is a skein of entanglement that connects far ends of the universe, including us." (p. 90). When particles have this relationship, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept of particles having a deep connection that links them.

Explanation:

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible thread (TEXT). Kabu (SURNAME) (2009) (YEAR) (REFERENCE TO THE AUTHOR AT THE BEGINNING OF THE QUOTE), states: "This means that, in a sense, what happens to us, instantly affects things in distant corners of the universe (...). In a sense there is a skein of entanglement that connects far ends of the universe, including us" (QUOTE - VERBATIM PHRASE IN QUOTES) (p. 90) (PAGE). When particles have this relationship, they are said to be non-quantumly entwined, the concept of particles having a deep connection linking them (TEXT).

Text-Based Citation

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible wire. "This means that, in a sense, what happens to us instannly affects things in the far reaches of the universe, ... In a sense there is a skein of entanglement that connects far ends of the universe including us" (Kabu 2009, p. 90). When particles have this relationship, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept that particles have a deep connection that links them.

Explanation:

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible thread (TEXT). "This means that, in a sense, what happens to us instannly affects things in the far reaches of the universe, ... In a sense there is a skein of entanglement that connects far reaches of the universe including us" (QUOTE) (Kabu 2009, p. 90) (LAST NAME, YEAR, PAGE) (DATA AT THE END OF THE QUOTED SENTENCE). When particles have this realtion, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept that particles have a deep connection linking them (TEXT).

Quote of more than 40 words

Citations that are longer than 40 words are written separately from the text, indented, unquoted, and non-italicized. At the end of the citation the period is placed before the data - remember that in citations with less than 40 words the period is put after. Similarly, the organization of the data can vary depending on where the emphasis is placed, as in the previous case.

Text-Based Citation

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible wire.

This means that, in a sense, what happens to us instantly affects things in distant corners of the universe, since our wavefunctions were probably intertwined at the beginning of time. In a sense there is a skein of entanglement that connects far reaches of the universe, including us. (Kaku, 2009, p.90)

When particles have this relationship, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept of particles has a deep connection that links them.

Explanation:

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible thread (TEXT).

This means that, in a sense, what happens to us instantly affects things in distant corners of the universe, since our wavefunctions were probably intertwined at the beginning of time. In a sense there is a skein of entanglement that connects far reaches of the universe, including us. (Kaku, 2009, p.90) (QUOTE) (LAST NAME, YEAR, PAGE) (DATA AT THE END OF THE QUOTED SENTENCE)

When particles have this relationship, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept of particles has a deep connection that links them (TEXT).

Author-Based Citation

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible wire. Kaku (2009), states:

This means that, in a sense, what happens to us instantly affects things in distant corners of the universe, since our wavefunctions were probably intertwined at the beginning of time. In a sense there is a skein of entanglement that connects far reaches of the universe, including us. (p.90)

When particles have this relationship, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept of particles has a deep connection that links them.

Explanation:

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible wire. Kaku (2009) (SURNAME, YEAR) (DATA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE QUOTED SENTENCE), states: (TEXT)

This means that, in a sense, what happens to us instantly affects things in distant corners of the universe, since our wavefunctions were probably intertwined at the beginning of time. In a sense there is a skein of entanglement that connects far reaches of the universe, including us. (p.90) (QUOTE)

When particles have this relationship, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept of particles has a deep connection that links them. (TEXT)

Quote from Paraphrasing

The paraphrase quote uses the ideas of an author, but in the writer's own words. In this citation it is necessary to include the author's surname and the year of publication. It can also vary according to the emphasis made. A paraphrasing quote from the previous example might be:

Text-Based Citation

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible wire. Thus, the things that affect us can have repercussions elsewhere in the universe because there is an entanglement that connects our wave functions in its far reaches (Kaku, 2009). When particles have this relationship, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept that particles have a deep connection linking them.

Explanation:

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible wire. Thus, the things that affect us can have repercussions elsewhere in the universe because there is an entanglement that connects our wave functions in their far reaches (Kaku, 2009) (SURNAME, YEAR) (DATA AT THE END OF THE PARAPHRASED SENTENCE). When particles have this relationship, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept that particles have a deep connection linking them.

Author-Based Citation

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible wire. Kaku (2009), refers that the things that affect us, can have repercussions in other places of the universe because there is an entanglement that connects our functions of wave in its distant confines. When particles have this relationship, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept that particles have a deep connection linking them.

Explanation:

At that point, if something happens to one electron, it is immediately transmitted to the other because its wave functions are connected by an invisible wire. Kaku (2009),(SURNAME, YEAR) (DATA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PARAPHRASED SENTENCE) refers that the things that affect us, can have repercussions in other places of the universe because there is an entanglement that connects our functions of wave in its distant confines. When particles have this relationship, they are said to be mechanoquanically entangled, the concept that particles have a deep connection linking them.

You may also be interested in: Research Problem Approach

If we have verbatim quotes from an author or more authors

Two authors

When they are two authors their surnames are separated by "and", if published in English by "&".

Rosenblum and Kuttner (2010) state that it is possible (...). - (...) it is necessary to make such considerations (Rosembum and Kuttner, 2010).

Three to five authors

When there are three to five authors, the first time they are cited, everyone's surnames are indicated. Then only the first one is cited and et al is added, followed by period (et al.).

Reimers, Mckemmish, McKenzie and Mark (2009) say that it has been evidenced in several experiments (...). Reimers et al. (2009) refer that it is important (...)

This has been evidenced in several experiments (Reimers, Mckemmish, McKenzie and Mark, 2009). (...) however, no other possible paths are proposed (Reimers et al., 2009).

Six or more authors

When there are six or more authors, the surname of the first is cited followed by et al. from the first citation.

Hameroff et al. (2006) states that microtubules (...)

(...) quantum coherence would produce consciousness (Hamerroff, et al., 2006).

Corporate author

In the case that it is a corporate author, the name of the organization is placed instead of the last name. The first time the full name is quoted and the acronym is indicated in the parenthesis. Henceforth, it is cited only by the acronym.

According to the National Police (PONAL, 2010)..., homicides (National [PONAL] Police, 2010).

Anonymous

When the author is anonymous, instead of the last name the word "Anonymous" is placed and all the above rules are taken into account.

Citation of a quote

An appointment is made when one source of information is accessed through another. For example, if you are reading a book by Stephen Hawking and it quotes an opinion or statement by Roger Penrose you quote: Penrose (as quoted in Hawking, 2010) thinks that mathematics (...)

Notes: When making paragraphs that expand or explain what is developed in the text, these should be marked with an index ( 1 ) and located at the end of the page or after the bibliographic references with the title "Notes".

Comparisons with the sixth edition

With the most current APA format (Seventh edition) you can shorten the textual mention of the authors by appending the abbreviation "et al." and also append up to 20 if necessary, for example:

Verbatim quote with Sixth edition
  • (Kennedy, Urban, Rivas & Ochoa, 2010)
  • Kennedy, Urban, Rivas and Ochoa (2010)
Verbatim quote with Seventh edition
  • (Kennedy et al., 2008)
  • Kennedy et al. (2008)

Bibliographic references

The references are a list with the complete information of the sources cited in the text, which allows them to be identified and located to make sure of the information contained there or complement it, if necessary.

What is the difference between the reference list and the bibliography?

In the list of references, the author includes only those sources that he used in his work. Also, a list of references cites works that specifically support a particular article. In contrast, a bibliography cites works that served as a basis or are useful for further reading, and may include descriptive notes. When we use the APA style, references are used.

All authors cited in the body of a text or work should match the list of references at the end, an author who has not been cited in the text should never be referenced, and vice versa. The list of references is arranged in alphabetical order, and each reference must have hanging indentation. For the referencing of numbers or volumes of some publication it is necessary to use Arabic and non-Roman numerals.

What to do if the reference lacks data?

If the reference lacks data, we recommend that you consider the following table:

Missing Data Format in References Intratextual citation
Author title. (year). (Title, year)
Date Author. (n. d.). title. source (Author, n. d.)
Title Author. (date). [short but descriptive summary. source (Author, year)
Author and date title. (n. d). source. (Title, n. d.)
Author and title [short but descriptive summary]. (year). ( [Description] , date)

[Description], (n. d)

Date and title Author. (n. d). [short but descriptive summary]. source. (Author, date)
Author, date and title [short but descriptive summary]. (n. d.). source. ( [Description] , n. d.)

[Description] (date)

 

Changes to references

You can find out below in the following table:

Description Format Sixth Edition Seventh Edition Format
The location of the publisher is deleted, only the number of the publisher is appended Surname, A. A. (Year). Title in italics. city. editorial. Surname, A. A. (Year). Title in italics (#ed). editorial.
The term "Retrieved from:" is deleted Surname, A. A. (Date). The title of the publication. The name of the site in italics. Retrieved from: URL Surname, A. A. (Date). Title of the publication in italics. The name of the site. URL
The DOI tag is removed, only the corresponding URL will be put with doi.rg Surname, A. A. (Date). Title of the article. Name of the periodical in italics, volume in italics(number), #-# pages. doi: xx.xxxx Surname, A. A. (Date). Title of the article. Name of the periodical in italics, volume in italics(number), #-# pages. https://doi.org/xxxxx
Formatting is eliminated in digital e-books, devices, or platforms Surname, A. A. (Year). Title of the book in italics [ e-book version]. Retrieved from URL Surname, A. A. (Year). Title of the book in italics. editorial. URL

Book with author

[Author's last name, Initial first name. (Year of publication), Book title, City and country, Book publisher.]

  • Example: Garcia, G. (1967), Cien años de soledad, Colombia, Editorial Planeta.

Book with editor

[Author's last name, Initial first name. [Ed .] . (Year of publication). Title of the book. City and Country: Editorial.]

  • Example: Garcia, G. [Ed .] . (1967), Cien años de soledad, Colombia: Editorial planeta.

E-books

[Last name, Initial first name. (Year of publication). Title of the book. Retrieved from http://urlweb.com]

  • Example: Garcia, G. (2015). One hundred years of solitude. Recovered from https://normasapa.in

EBook with DOI

[Author's last name, Author's Initials (Year). Title of the book. DOI: 0000000000]

  • Example: Garcia, G. (2015). One hundred years of solitude. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.uph32-65.ggmc

Chapter of a book

[Author's last name, Author's initials (Year of publication). Chapter title. Title of the book (Pages). City, Country: Editorial]

Thesis work

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. (date AA – MM – DD). Title of the thesis [TYPE: Undergraduate, master's or doctoral thesis). Name of institution, location of institution.]

  • Example: Rivas, A. (2018, July 18). Energy use of water resources [Tesis de pregrado] . Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogotá.

Scientific articles

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. (Publication date). Title of the article. Journal name, volume (Issue), pages.]

  • Example: Griswold, M. (2014, September 12). How much alcohol is safe? Not a drop. The Lancet, volume (2), pp. 12-13.

Encyclopedia

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. (Year). Entry title, Encyclopedia Name (volume, Pages). Location: Editorial.]

Newspaper

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. (Date). Title of the article. Name of newspaper, pp-pp].

  • Example: Cano, G. (1990). National differences in Colombia. The spectator, pp.2-4

Web pages

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. (Date). The title of the page. URL web page name]

  • Example: Rivas, A. & Urban, B. (2019, August 28). Online generator. https://normasapa.in/citar-apa-online APA Standards

Social Network Post (Twitter)

[Profile owner's last name, Profile owner's initial name [@UsuarioTwitter]. (Date). Name or description of the [Tuit] Tweet. URL Twitter]

  • Example: Rivas, A. [@Seoapa] (2019, July 18). Online generator. https://twitter.com/generador123 APA Standards

Web article (No author)

[Article title. (Publication date). Retrieved from http://urlweb.com]

  • Example: Global changes. (2019, June 17). Recovered from http://cambios.com/cambios-globales

Web article (Undated)

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. (s.f.). Title of the article. Retrieved from http://urlweb.com]

  • Example: Rivas, C. (s.f). Abbreviations in German. Recovered from https://aprendiendo.com/abreviaciones-aleman

Web article (Untitled)

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. (Publication date). [Description of the document]. Retrieved from http://urlweb.com]

  • Example: Vargas, E. (2010). [Cómo hacer una introducción]. Recovered from https://donapa.com/pasos-para-hacer-una-introduccion

Web article (No author – no date)

[Article title. (s.f.). Retrieved from http://urlweb.com]

  • Example: APA References. (s.f.) Recovered from https://normasapa.in/referencias-apa

Web article (No author – no title)

[[Description del artículo]. (Publication date). Retrieved from http://urlweb.com]

  • Example: [Bibliographic references webs en APA]. (2015, August 20). Recovered from http://donapa.net/referencias

Web article (Undated – untitled)

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. (s.f.). [Description del artículo]. Retrieved from http://urlweb.com]

  • Example: Hurtado, C. (s.f.). [Métodos para aprender inglés]. Recovered from http://tipspara.com/ingles

Web article (No author – no date – no title)

[[Description del artículo]. (s.f.). Retrieved from http://urlweb.com]

  • Example: [Grandes beneficios de la dieta Keto]. (s.f). Recovered from http://dietasana.com/dieta-keto

PDF files

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. (Date). Document title [archivo PDF] . Retrieved from (web where downloaded) or doi: 0000000/00000000000000000000)

  • Example: Beske, S. D. (2019, September). Differences between apa and [archivo PDF] icontec. Recovered from https://normasicontec.co/

Wikipedia article

[Nombre del artículo [En Wikipedia]. Retrieved (Date) from http://urlwikipedia.com]

  • Example: APA style. [En Wikipedia]. Retrieved (2019, November 11) from https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estilo_APA

Dictionaries or Thesaurus

[Dictionary name. (Year published). http://urldiccionario.com name (edit)

  • Example: Royal Spanish Academy (2019). Dictionary of the Spanish language (tricentennial edition) of https://diccionariolengua.com/normas

Videos de Youtube

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. [Nombre o nick en Youtube]. (Year, month day publication). Video title [Video] . Recovered from http://Urlvideo.com

  • Example: Rios, J. [Julioprofe] . (2019, October 29). Derivation of functions [Video] . Recovered from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tyoPXhzGzrE

Films

[Author's last name, Initial author's first name. (Year). Name movie [Película] . Study Name]

  • Example: Cameron, J. (2009). Avatar [Película] . Century Fox

Song

[Author. (Year). Name song. [song]. Label name.]

  • Example:Johns. (2013). The black shirt [song] . Universal Music Latino

Photographs

[ [Fotografía] of last name and first name of the author]. (Place, Year). The name of the collection. Location]

  • Example: [Fotografía] by Rodriguez Camila. (Alto de las rosas, 2019) Photo library. Colombia, Bogotá

Parts of the work with APA Standards

These are the guidelines that APA proposes for the presentation of a manuscript or publication, but not all of them are relevant to all articles.

A brief description of each element will now be given:

Title

The title should briefly express the main idea of the writing in a simple way, it should be explanatory on its own.

  • The recommended thing for a title is not to extend more than 12 words.
  • Also, the title must be capitalized initial, centered between the left and right margins, and located in the top half of the page.

Author's name and institutional afliation

They must be included in every manuscript.

Author's name (author's foot): The most recommended modality for the author's name is to carry the first and last name. Keep in mind to always use the same model for every publication. Do not use initials in one manuscript and the full name in a later manuscript.

Institutional affiliation: this identifies the place where the author or authors conducted the research. It is usually an institution. Dual membership can be included if only if two institutions contributed significantly to the study in the financial aspect.

When an author has no institutional affiliation, write down the city and entity of residence below the name.

  • The authors' names should appear in the order of their contributions and centered between the side margins.
  • For names with suffixes (Jr. And III), separate the suffix from the rest of the name with a space instead of a comma.
  • Institutional affiliation should focus under the author's name, on the following line.

Author's Notes

Author's notes are not requirements for theses. They appear with each article printed.

The notes should appear as follows:

First paragraph

Full departmental affiliation. Here you must write the name of the author as it appears in the author footer, separate with (,) comma, department name, (,), name d e university, separate with (;) semicolon, to type the name of the next author, until you name them all and end with a period (.).

Some examples:

Variation of the Author's Foot Example
Unaffiliated author Andrés C. Montes Manizales, Caldas
Three authors, one affiliation Carolina Martínez, Pedro Lugo and Sofía Nieto Catholic University of Colombia
Two authors, two affiliations Milena Carvajal Universidad del Valle

Armando Gutierrez

Externado de Colombia University

 

Second paragraph

This is used, only if necessary for membership changes.

Third paragraph

It refers to acknowledgements. It is here that the people who helped to carry out the study or to analyze the manuscript are thanked.

Fourth paragraph

This paragraph is used to provide an email address of the contact person to receive correspondence. This chapter concludes with an email address with no end period.

  • The author's note is placed on the cover, below the title, author's footer and affiliation.
  • Centre the legend Author's note.
  • Use indentation at the beginning of each paragraph of the note and write in separate paragraphs the author's name and current affiliations, changes in their affiliations, acknowledgements, and special circumstances (if applicable), along with the contact person.
  • The author's note is not numbered or quoted in the text.

Summary

Please note that this is done to present a brief and generalized summary of the contents of the article. A good summary should be accurate, non-evaluative, coherent, readable and concise.

Introduction

The introduction is identified by the position in the manuscript and does not bear a specific title indicating this.

It presents the specific study problem and describes the research strategy. Then explain the importance of the problem, describe previous work, expose the hypotheses and their correspondence with the research design.

  • The introduction starts on a new page, is identified by the cornice and page number (3).
  • You must type the title of the manuscript in case, focus it at the top of the page, and then continue with the text.
  • The following parts of the article should appear one after the other without line breaks.
  • You should not start a new page when there is a new header.
  • Note that each page of the manuscript must bear the cornice and the corresponding page number.

Method

It is here that it is described in detail how the study was carried out, including the conceptual and operational definitions of the variables used in the study.

Something to keep in mind: It is convenient to divide the method section into labeled subsections.

They should include: one with the description of the participants, another that describes the procedures used in the study.

Remember to include in the subsections only the information essential to understanding and replicating the study.

Results

It is here that you summarize the data collected and the analysis of the same that are outstanding for the writing you are going to write. Present the data in sufficient detail to justify the conclusions.

Feedback

This space is for you to examine, interpret, and rate the results.

Emphasise the theoretical or practical consequences of the results.

If the results are brief and straightforward, they can be combined with the results, creating a section called Results and Comments.

Multiple experiments

If multiple studies are presented in a manuscript, ensure that the justification, logic, and method of each study are clear to the reader.

Report in a single article only those studies that have a conceptual link.

Meta-analysis

This method is used to make quantitative synthesis of research.

Please note: if the number of articles contributing to the meta-analysis is relatively small 50 or less, they should appear in the reference list with an asterisk that identifies them. On the other hand if these articles exceed 50, then references to the articles should be put in a list and in an online companion file.

List of References

References are used to document claims about the literature.

The references cited in the manuscript do not need to be complete, although they should be sufficient to support the need for your research.

  • You must start on a new page.
  • The word reference must be uppercase in the first letter and the other (References) and centered lowercase.
  • Reference entries must be double-spaced.
  • According to the APA manual all references must be indented 0.5 inches (1.27 cm) from the second line.
  • Any project or basis cited in the text will have to be appended to the list of references
  • It will have to be appended alphabetically
  • Each URL will have to be linked via "Hyperlinks"
How to organize the reference list

Bibliographic references are written at the end of a scientific article, a thesis, a book, etc., they must be noted in an alphabetical list by surname of the author and must provide accurate and complete information to identify and locate each of the sources cited in the text.

Here are some guidelines for organizing the "reference list."

  • Bibliographical references are organized in alphabetical order by the authors' surnames or by titles when the former do not appear.
  • Alphabetize letter by letter and word by word, for example, Corral precedes Corrales.
  • If there is more than one reference by the same author, they are put in chronological order, from oldest to most recent.
  • If the referenced author has more than two works published in the same year, at the end of each year the letters a, b, c, etc., are added as appropriate and the title is sorted alphabetically.
  • When there is more than one reference from the same author, the name of the author is not repeated, a margin of 1.5 cm is replaced.
  • If a work by an author and another by the same author but with other people appear, first the one of single authorship is put and then the one of co-authors.

A margin of 1.3 cm should be left from the second line of each reference.

Appendices: Tables, figures and diagrams

An Appendix refers to the additional information that you want to include outside of what was written in the manuscript, for this you can include: tables, images or other information that is important to make known to the reader.

  • If you only have one appendix, name it in the writing "Appendix", but note that if there is more than one appendix, you must assign each one a capital letter (e.g. Appendix A, Appendix B) in the order in which they are mentioned in the manuscript. It is mandatory that each appendix bears its title.
  • An appendix can include header and subheaders, as well as tables, figures, and unfolded equations. Remember to number them.
  • Start each appendix on a separate page.
  • The word Appendix, should be centered with the capitalization that identifies it at the top of the page.
  • Also, the title of the appendix should be centered, the first letter uppercase and the other lowercase.
  • The text in the appendix should be left-aligned, followed by indented paragraphs.

Complementary Materials

Refers to an inline file that you have from the source of the file.

Examples: extensive computer code, details of mathematical or computer models, audio or video clips, large format tables, among others.

These materials that are put online must have a known and easily accessible format, so that the reader can access it without any difficulty.

Keep in mind that the purpose of including appendices or complementary materials is so that readers have a help and can understand, evaluate or replicate the study or theoretical argument raised.

Tables in APA Standards

To make a table you must follow the following guidelines:

  • Each table should be numbered, and this should be done at the beginning. (As in the example image)
  • The title of the table should be short and descriptive, and it should be written in letter c
  • Note: It must be descriptive to the subject of which it is commented in said table, in addition if the table was taken from another medium in the note of the table must be put the author, if the table is of another medium will also touch include it in References. For example: "Note. Retrieved from BBC Magazine. Copyright 2013. Reprinted with permission.
Components of a Table

APA-style tables have the following basic components:

  • Table number: The table number (for example, Table 1) is the first thing that appears first. Use bold. Number the tables in the order in which they are mentioned in your research.
  • Title: You must type the table title on a line with double line spacing and below the table number. Use a short but descriptive title. Use italics.
  • Header: Tables can include a variety of headers depending on the nature and layout of the data. All tables must include column headers. It is suggested to center the text in the column headers.
  • Body: The body of the table includes all the rows and columns of a table (including the row of headers). The table body can be single-line spacing, 1.5, or double. It is recommended to center the text in all cells of the table, however, if aligning it to the left increases readability, feel free to align it to the left.

Note: Use the notes to describe the contents of the table that cannot be understood by the title alone or by the same data. If you use abbreviations in the table, you can specify them in the notes, you can also use them for copyright attribution, extra explanations with asterisks. It is not a mandatory point, so include table notes only if necessary.

Table borders

You should limit the use of borders or lines in the table. In general, a border is used at the top and bottom of the table, below the column headings, and above the column totals. Do not use vertical borders to separate data, and do not use borders around each cell in a table. The space between columns and rows and a correct text alignment should be sufficient to clarify the relationships between the elements of a table.

Font type and size and line spacing

Use the same font type and size in the tables as in the rest of your text. The table body (cells) can have single line spacing, 1.5, or double line spacing. Use line spacing that makes the table design most effective for compressing the information presented. Use double intelineado in the table number, title, and notes.

Location of tables

There are two options for the location of tables (and figures) in an investigation. The first is to embed tables in the text after you mention it for the first time; the second option is to add each table on a separate page after the list of references.

If the table is short, you can mix text and the table on the same page. Try adding the table to the beginning or end of the page. Note that a table could also take up the entire page without a problem. You may need to add a blank line between the table and the text to improve the visual presentation.

Long or Wide Tables

If a table is longer than a page, you can have the row of headers repeated on the second page and on subsequent pages (as many times as necessary).

If a table is too wide to fit on a page, you can use landscape orientation on the page with the table wide.

How to type the title of a table

Each table should have a short title, but one that is clear and explanatory. The basic content of the table should be easily understood from the title.

  • Too general: Relationship between college careers and average score [No está claro qué datos son presentado en la tabla.]
  • Too detailed: Average scores on A, B and C tests of psychology, physics, English and engineering students [Esto duplica la información en los encabezados de la tabla.]
  • A good degree: The average scores of students with different college careers
Citing tables in the text

When citing a table or figure in the text, you should do so by its number, such as "Table 3" or "Figure 2". Do not refer to the table by its position with respect to the text (e.g., "figure below") or its page number (e.g., "the table on page 12").

Response rates are presented in Table 1. The results indicate that response rates for face-to-face courses were much higher than for online courses.

Quotations in of the table

In some cases only a portion of the information in your table is from third parties. In such cases, or where, for example, citations apply to a few particular cells or data it may be appropriate to cite your sources, using the author-date citation format in one of two ways below.

First option

You can include quotations in parentheses within the table next to the relevant information, just as you would with a standard text citation.

Second option

Cite kas sources in the Table Note in a general note or in multiple specific notes that connect citations to some particular cells by using a superscript with lowercase letters. The latter method can be especially useful if a font is applied to more than one cell and shown in the example table below (citations in parentheses within cells would be equally acceptable).

Table 1
Main phases of herd behavior in the stock market
Phase Acts Typical phrases
Caution The takeoff "Now is not the time to enter the stock market." to

"I've already lost a lot of money in the stock market. This time I won't be fooled." B

Conscience First realization of profits

First subjects in the specialized midia

"Is it now if I have to enter the market?" C

"I'm thinking about buying stocks again." B

Euphoria Unsypersed care

Widespread enthusiasm

Fear of losing the climb

"I can't miss this stock high." D

"Now I'm going to sell my house and all my assets and invest in stock." to

The Great Fall negation

fear

"Now that he fell a little bit, I hope he recovers." and

"I'm going to sell everything I bought before I lose everything I invested." C

Note. a) Ayala (2020, p. 45). b) Souza and Malavoglia (2019, p. 99). (c) Nakimoto et al. (1994, p. 176). d) Sanchez (2020, p. 13). e) Lennon (2001, p. 33).

Another way to quote in from tables with data from other studies is as in the table below. If you're simply extracting data from multiple sources, rather than reusing columns or rows from pre-existing tables (the data isn't copyrighted, but its presentation is), then it may be appropriate to include standard text citations within the cells. This type of table is often used to summarize the results of multiple studies, making it easier for readers to digest information, and is commonly used in meta-analyses.

Figures in the APA Standards

For the figures the following guidelines should be followed:

  • The margin must be respected, the figure must be the first thing you see.
  • in the note this must first have the descriptive name of the figure in italics
  • After the name of the figure, a small but complementary summary describing the figure should be written.

All types of visual elements other than tables are considered figures in the APA style. For example: illustrations, infographics, photographs, line or bar charts, flowcharts, drawings, maps, etc. are considered figures. Tables and figures have the same general configuration.

Should I add a figure to my work?

The first point we must consider when inserting a figure into an academic work is to reflect on the value of the figure's information in the context of the document. Does the figure substantially help the understanding of the document or the results? or does the figure duplicate other items in the job? If the figure helps, we must include it in the work, otherwise, there is no need.

The second point to consider is: is the figure the best way to communicate information? or could you present it in a table?

Components of a figure

APA-style figures have the following basic components:

  • Figure number: The figure number (for example, Figure 1) is the first item we need to add. Bold should be used. Number the figures in the order in which they appear in your document.
  • Title: The title of the figure should appear one line below the figure number. Give each figure a short but descriptive title. Use italics in the title.
  • Image: Insert the graphic, photograph, drawing, or other illustration.
  • Legend: A figure legend must be placed within the edges of the figure and can be used to explain the symbols used in the figure image. (Example of legend: "square points represent gains and round points losses").

Note: Add any content you need to describe that cannot be understood by the title or the image itself alone (e.g., abbreviation definitions, copyright attribution). Include figure notes only as needed.

Location of the figures in the text

There are two options for the location of figures (and tables) in an investigation. You can both embed each figure in the text after you mention it for the first time and you can add each figure on a separate page after the list of references, or after the tables (if any).

Images can appear embedded in the text or at the end in a list of Figures. If you embed them in the text you should do so, ideally, after being referred. That is, first the comment is made referring to the image by its number and then the figure is added to the text.

Example

Figures in Standards Apa 7th Edition

Figures in Standards Apa 7th Edition

As we can see in Figure 1, the dollar has lost its value due to inflation over time. On the other hand, gold has maintained its purchasing power.

How to reference an image, photograph, or graphic

If you are adapting or reproducing a table or figure that was originally published by someone else, you will need to provide a copyright statement below the table or figure, as well as include a corresponding bibliographic reference entry. The copyright credits for an image should be in the Note below the figure.

Basic Format

Note. Adapted from Image Title, Image Author, year of image publication, Source. License type.

Image of a web page

In the case of a web page, the source is the name of the web site followed by the URL.

Note. Adapted from Virus VIH [Fotografía] , by Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2011, Flickr (https://flic.kr/p/aronSf). CC BY 2.0

Figure of a book

Note. Adapted from Stocks for the Long Run (p. 120), by J. J. Siegel , 2014, McGrawHill Education.

Figure of a journal article

In the case of a journal article, the journal, volume, and issue of the journal are the source.

Note. Adapted from "Title of the article" (p. 187), by A. Surname, 2019, Journal Title, 3 (17).

Image Copyright

Just because you've found some image or graphic on the internet doesn't mean you can reproduce it freely. You should be attentive to the terms of the copyright, determine if you need permission, obtain permission, and make sure to credit a copyright statement and an entry in the reference list.

Figures of own elaboration

When the figure is self-made it is not necessary to add any type of copyright statement. APA assumes that anything that has no citation (or copyright statement) is authored by the author himself.

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