According to Aristotle, a deduction is an argument in which, being certain things, something other than these is necessarily produced through them. The deductive method uses only information that is supposed to be accurate. It does not include emotions, feelings or assumptions without evidence because it is difficult to determine the accuracy of this information.
What is the Deductive Method?
The deductive profile method is based on the application of deductive reasoning to observable evidence. Victimology, crime scene, forensic evidence, and behavior analysis are all components of the deductive process.
Steps of the Deductive Method
The deductive reasoning process includes the following steps:
Initial assumption. Deductive reasoning begins with an assumption.
Second premise. A second premise is made in relation to the first assumption. If the first statement is true, the second related statement must also be true.
Tests. Next, the deductive assumption is tested in a variety of scenarios.
Conclusion. Based on the test results, the information is determined to be valid or invalid.
Deductive reasoning syllogism
One of the most common types of deductive reasoning is the syllogism. The syllogism refers to two statements, a major and a minor statement, that come together to form a logical conclusion.
The reliability of deductive reasoning
While deductive reasoning is considered a reliable form of proof, it is important to recognize that it can sometimes lead to a false conclusion. This generally occurs when one of the first hypothetical statements is false. It is also possible to reach an accurate conclusion even if one or both of the generalized premises are false.
Hypothesis and Deductive Method
Hypotheses can be tested using if / then thinking. We could start with a hypothesis like "Hackers are mostly harmless." If our hypothesis is correct, the data should show that the vast majority of hacking incidents do not cause monetary loss or other harm to companies or individuals whose systems are hacked. Finding one or two incidences of loss or damage would not disprove the hypothesis, but if we find a large number of cases that are inconsistent with our hypothesis, we can consider it invalid.
Our conclusion, then, could be the opposite of the hypothesis we started with: hackers are not "mostly harmless." Profilers using the deductive method often mention that success depends on being able to "get into the mind" of the criminal, think as the criminal thinks, understand the criminal's motives, and predict future actions.
The best deductive profilers may claim that they are based on intuition or that they use common sense to develop profiles. However, closer examination often reveals that the "common sense" they refer to is a logical thought process, applied to the solid evidence they have collected and observed. This thought process can take place subconsciously, leading to "intuitive feelings" that don't actually come out of nowhere, but are the result of long hours or days of subconscious processing of masses of information.
Difference with the Inductive Process
What is inductive reasoning?
Inductive reasoning is often used to create hypotheses rather than applying them to different scenarios.
Unlike the inductive process, which is based on statistical data (and which can be processed by a computer as well or better than a human being), deductive reasoning requires intelligence that machines are not yet capable of. Deductive thinking is not just a skill, but also a talent that some people seem to be born with and that other people will never be able to learn. The most talented detectives tend to be masters of deductive reasoning.
Examples of inductive reasoning
All the managers in my office have college degrees. Therefore, you must have a college degree to become a manager.
My boss said someone would get a raise at the end of the year. My sales were the highest on the team. I must be getting a raise. I usually get off work after 6 p.m. and I can usually avoid traffic. As long as I leave work after 6 p.m., I will always miss the traffic.
My boss is forgiving and doesn't care when I'm late. I'm late for the office every day. Therefore, I will never be reprimanded for being late for work.
Each of these statements could imply that the final premise is true. However, it is also possible that the first assumptions are not based on facts, which means that the conclusion could also be false.
Examples of deductive reasoning
My state requires all attorneys to pass the bar to practice. If I do not approve, I will not be able to represent anyone legally.
My boss said that the person with the highest sales would get a promotion at the end of the year. I have generated the highest sales, so I am looking forward to a promotion.
Our biggest sales come from executives who live in our company's home state. Based on this information, we have decided to allocate more of our marketing money to target executives in that state.
One of our clients is not satisfied with his experience. You don't like how long it takes to return a phone call. Therefore, if we give you a faster response, you will be more satisfied.
I must have 40 credits to graduate this spring. Since I only have 38 credits, I will not graduate this spring.
My university's career center offers free resume reviews to students. I am a student and I plan to have my resume reviewed, so I will not have to pay anything for this service.
Uses of deductive reasoning
Problem resolution. Many roles require you to use problem solving skills to overcome challenges and discover reliable solutions. You can apply the deductive reasoning process to your problem-solving efforts by first identifying a precise assumption that you can use as the basis for your solution. Deductive reasoning often leads to fewer errors because it reduces guesswork.
Teamwork. Many organizations expect employees to work together in teams to achieve results. Teams are often made up of employees with different work styles, which can make collaboration difficult and reduce productivity. Using the deductive reasoning process, you can identify where the problem lies and draw accurate conclusions and help team members line up.
Customer service. You can also apply deductive reasoning skills to the customer service experience. With this process, you can determine an appropriate solution to a customer's problem. By identifying what the customer is dissatisfied with and then connecting it with what you know about their experience, you can appropriately address their concern and increase customer satisfaction. Highlight your deductive reasoning skills when looking for work. While deductive reasoning is often used in the research and science industries, it can also be applied in almost any position where you have to make important decisions or solve complex challenges. Because many employers value problem-solving skills, it helps to highlight your deductive reasoning skills during the hiring process.
The STAR method
The STAR technique includes the following parts:
Situation. Discuss the situation in which you applied this logical reasoning skill. Include details about the problem and your work environment.
Task. Discuss the problem you faced with the hypothesis you identified and include the process you used to determine that the premises were accurate.
Action. Highlight the concrete and practical steps you used to solve the problem.
Outcome. Share the specific outcome of the situation. For example, were you able to solve a customer problem or prevent the organization from making a costly mistake? Practicing the STAR technique ahead of time can help you prepare for an upcoming interview. It can also help you find ways to include examples of deductive reasoning while demonstrating your problem-solving skills. Deductive reasoning is a useful method of reaching conclusions, such as solving a problem or overcoming a challenge. Learning how to strengthen this skill set can help you impress employers during your job search and improve your performance on the job.
You might be also interested in: Prospective studies