Scientists test different types of explanations through experiments, observations, models and additional theoretical studies. Therefore, the body of scientific knowledge is based on previous ideas and is constantly growing. It is deliberately shared with colleagues through the peer review process, where scientists comment on each other's work, and then through publication in the scientific literature (see our

Utilizing the Scientific Literature module), where it can be evaluated and integrated into the body of scientific knowledge by the community at large. And this is not the end: one of the hallmarks of scientific knowledge is that it is subject to change, as new data are collected and existing data are reinterpreted.

Major theories, which are supported by multiple lines of evidence, rarely change completely, but new data and proven explanations add nuance and detail. The idea of science is that you can only learn about a phenomenon in a reliable and accurate way by collecting empirical data. The scientific process is designed to reduce human bias as much as possible and make our conclusions as accurate as possible.

What is science?

Science is about understanding the world, but it is a process rather than a body of knowledge. Science consists of two things: a body of knowledge and the process by which that knowledge is produced. This second component of science provides us with a way of thinking and knowing the world. Usually, we only see the "body of knowledge" component of science. But there are a number of things that distinguish the scientific process and give us confidence in the knowledge that is produced through it.

Philosophy of Science

This discipline is based on epistemology, but it overlaps with metaphysics when it explores the relationship between science and the nature of reality. Some philosophers of science also use the contemporary results of science to reach conclusions about philosophy itself. While philosophical thought pertaining to science dates back at least to the time of Aristotle, philosophy of science emerged as a discipline in the mid-20th century. Thomas Kuhn's historic 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was also formative, challenging the view of scientific progress as a constant and cumulative acquisition of knowledge.

What is the scientific process?

Different scientific disciplines often use different methods and approaches to investigate the natural world, but evidence is the core of all scientists' scientific research. Part of the scientific process involves what you do after the data have been collected. Once you have collected the data, it is analyzed, often using statistics and calculations, and then conclusions are drawn from those results. But how do we know these conclusions are accurate? This process must be completed before any scientific article is published, and it eliminates a great deal of flawed research.

What is the scientific way of thinking?

A scientific way of thinking is something that anyone can use, at any time, whether or not they are in the process of developing new knowledge and explanations. Thinking scientifically involves asking questions that can be answered analytically by collecting data or creating a model and then testing one's ideas. A scientific way of thinking inherently includes creativity in addressing explanations while staying within the boundaries of the data.

Thinking scientifically does not mean rejecting your culture and background, but recognizing the role they play in your thinking. These different ways of thinking are complementary, not in competition, as they address different aspects of human experience. In the classical economic literature on the public good of scientific knowledge, the idea of a public (or common) good has received much attention. Surprisingly, in this literature there has not been a similar focus on the notion of scientific knowledge.

Consensus Theory of Truth

Peirce's contribution to the social epistemology of science is commonly regarded as his consensus theory of truth: "The opinion that is destined to be ultimately accepted by all who investigate is what we understand by truth, and the object represented is the real thing. (Peirce 1878, 133) Although it is often read as meaning that truth is what the community of long-term researchers converges on, the notion can be interpreted in the most precise sense that truth (and "the real") depends on the agreement of the community of inquirers or that it is an effect of the real that will ultimately produce an agreement among inquirers.

"We cannot, individually, expect to achieve the maximum philosophy we pursue; we can only seek it for the community of philosophers. (Peirce 1868, 40). Thus, whether their theory of truth is consensual or realistic, their vision of the practices by which we achieve it gives a central place to dialogue and social interaction.

The concept of NOS

The phrase "nature of science" (NOS) can refer to the epistemology of science or to the principles and beliefs inherent in the development of scientific knowledge. However, there is disagreement among philosophers of science, historians of science, sociologists of science, scientists, and science educators about a specific conception of the NOS. We also recognize this lack of agreement, and therefore we will use the phrase "NOS" instead of "the NOS" throughout this document after Lederman and his colleagues. After synthesizing the main literature on the NOS, three aspects of the NOS are considered in this research:

a) the nature of scientific knowledge, b) the nature of the scientific research and c) the nature of the scientific enterprise, which constitutes the conceptual framework and is discussed below.

Nature of scientific knowledge


Although scientific knowledge is durable, it is never absolute or safe (Lederman, 2004; Osborne, et al., 2003). When new evidence is found against existing knowledge, as a result of the advancement of technology, or old evidence is reinterpreted in light of the new advanced theory, existing knowledge can be altered (Lederman, 2004). In addition, the uncertainty of scientific knowledge is observed because it is inferential, subjective, creative, and culturally rooted in nature.


Although scientific knowledge "is derived from and/or consistent with observations of natural phenomena," it is also inferential in nature. "Observations are descriptive statements about natural phenomena that are 'directly' accessible to the senses (or extensions of the senses)" (Lederman, 2004). For example, if we drop an object on the ground level, we can observe its tendency to fall and hit the ground. On the other hand, the object tends to fall to the ground due to gravity, which is not accessible to our senses and "can only be accessed and/or measured through its effect manifestations" (Lederman, 2004). This logical conclusion of observation is called inference.

Of a theoretical and subjective nature

The theoretical knowledge, training, experience, commitments, religious or other beliefs, political convictions, gender and ethnicity of scientists can form a mindset that affects scientific research (Lederman, 2004). Different scientists with different values engage in different forms of scientific research (Allchin, 1999). Moreover, these values influence what they observe (and do not observe) and how they interpret those observations. In other words, these observations help to find answers to some questions, which are derived from certain theoretical perspectives.

Scientific knowledge involves human inference, imagination and creativity

Despite having an empirical basis of scientific knowledge, it involves the imagination and creativity of scientists (Lederman, 2004). For example, the concepts of atoms, black holes, force fields and species are not faithful copies of reality, but are functional theoretical models as a result of the creative integration of SNO and its inferential nature (Abd-El-Khalick, et al., 2008).

Nature and function of theories and laws

Scientific laws are "statements or descriptions of the relationships between observable phenomena," while scientific theories are "explanations inferred from observable phenomena" (Lederman, 2004, p. 305). For example, in Einstein's theory of relativity gravity plays a crucial role. In this theory, the basic law of gravity is intact, and the theory extends it to include various complex situations involving space and time. It should be noted that theories and laws are supported by empirical data, are considered as different types of knowledge and one does not become the other. However, it is often believed that after being empirically tested a hypothesis becomes a theory and laws are mature-fabricated theories.

Nature of scientific research

Myth of the "Scientific Method"

It is often perceived that there is a step-by-step procedure similar to a recipe in all scientific research. However, there is no single "scientific method" that guarantees the development of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, there is no single sequence of practical, conceptual or logical activities that leads precisely to valid statements in the development of scientific knowledge.

Myth of "The Experimentation"

This myth of the NOS refers to the idea that only experimental research characterizes scientific research. However, scientific research can take other forms, such as descriptive and correlative research (Lederman, 2004).

Nature of the scientific enterprise

The social and cultural integration of science

Science is a human enterprise rooted and practiced in society (Abd-El-Khalick, et al., 2008); therefore, science affects and is affected by different cultural elements, such as social values, power structures, politics, socio-economic factors, philosophy and religion (Lederman, 2004). The influence of these factors can be seen in the question of public funding of scientific research.

Interaction between science and technology

Science and technology have different roles in society. It is important to understand the interaction and to have an understanding of the distinctions between science and technology. However, there are often misconceptions among teachers in this regard, as technology is applied science.

Cooperation and collaboration in science

Scientific work is a collective and collaborative activity (Lederman, 2004). Although individuals can make important contributions, scientific work is often carried out in groups. New knowledge claims are generally shared and must go through a double-blind peer review process to be accepted by the scientific community.

Bibliographic References

Anderson, M. L. 2003. “Embodied Cognition: A Field Guide.” Artificial Intelligence 149: 91–130.10.1016/S0004-3702(03)00054-7

Lederman (2004). “The Normative Structure of Science.” In The Sociology of Science, R. K. Merton, edited by N.W. Storer, 267–278. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Miller, B. 2015. “Why (Some) Knowledge is the Property of a Community and Possibly None of its Members.” The Philosophical Quarterly 65 (260): 417–441.10.1093/pq/pqv025

Peirce (1878) 2002. “The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research.” In Science Bought and Sold: Essays in the Economics of Science, edited by P. Mirowski and E.-M. Sent, 151–164. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

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