Social change involves society or specific aspects of social life on an ongoing basis, affecting culture, the economy, politics and demography. Similar phenomena can be repeated in different ways and with different times. In the context of sociological analysis, social change has been described and interpreted using concepts that aim to empirically define the limits of a phenomenon and measure the presence and the qualitative and quantitative relevance of such phenomena.
The sociologist is asked to analyze the phenomenon, its limits and its dynamics. However, every day life shows characteristics that are not always easily referred to as clear models. The phenomena and indicators that are used to measure social change are sometimes unclear regarding their semantic definition and measurement in sociology.
Types of Sociological Analysis
There is no one correct way of looking at society; To understand how society works, sociologists use a variety of different approaches and techniques. These are five common approaches, and they are often used in combination with each other.
Quantitative: it is the study of society using numbers and statistics: for example, considering people’s income (a dollar amount, for example) in light of their education (a degree or several years).
Qualitative: is to study society knowing people and situations in detail, then describing them in words: for example, interviewing people about their experiences in the workplace and the labor market.
Macrosociológico: it analyzes the “general panorama” that includes the historical change during dozens or hundreds of years, the rise and fall of political systems or class hierarchies.
Microsociological:involves observing individual interactions between individuals: for example, how people negotiate social situations such as job interviews or personal confrontations.
Network analysis means examining the patterns of social ties between people in a group and what those patterns mean for the group as a whole.
Macro and Micro Perspectives in Sociology
Just as scientists can study the natural world using different levels of analysis (eg, physical, chemical, or biological), sociologists study the social world using different levels of analysis. The macro-level study of generalized social processes has been the most dominant approach, and has been practiced since the origins of sociology in the founding work of figures like Emile Durkheim.
Durkheim, for example, studied the large-scale shift from traditional homogeneous societies to industrialized societies, where each individual played a highly specialized role. The trend toward macrosociology is evident in the kinds of questions that early sociologists asked: What holds societies together? How do societies establish and manage standards (and deviation)? What factors lead to social change and what are the results of this change? Macrosociologists focus on society as a whole, as something earlier and greater than the sum of individual people.
The New Forms of Sociological Analysis: The Digital Tribes
The term tribe, (in the case that concerns us digital tribe), is used as a slang term for a community or unofficial organization of people who share a common interest, and who are generally affiliated with each other through social networks or other Internet mechanisms. Is related to “tribe”, which traditionally refers to people closely associated in both geography and genealogy.
Today, it is more like a virtual community or personal network and is often called a global digital tribe. Most anthropologists agree that a tribe is a (small) society that practices its own customs and culture, and that these define the tribe. Tribes divide into clans, with their own cultural customs and values that differentiate them from activities that occur in “real life” contexts. People are more inclined to share and defend their ideas on social media than they would dare to tell someone face to face.
A little history
The term “tribe” originated in the days of the Greek city-states and the early formation of the Roman Empire. Since then, the Latin term “tribes” has been changed to mean “A group of people who form a community and claim descent from a common ancestor” (Oxford English Dictionary). Over the years, the range of meanings has increased. For example, “any of the various systems of social organization that comprise various villages, gangs, districts, lineages, or other local groups and that share an ancestry, language, culture, and common names “(Morris, 1980, p. 1369). Morris (1980) also points out that a tribe is a “group of people with a common occupation, interest or habit” and “a large family”. Remnants of the old tribal communities have been preserved both in the format of large gatherings (such as soccer games) and in the format of small gatherings (such as church communities).
Although today the range of groups referred to as tribal is truly enormous, it was not until industrial society eroded the tribal gatherings of more primitive societies that the term “community” was redefined. However, the existence of social networks as we know them today is due to the post-industrial society that has experienced a rapid growth of personal computers, mobile phones and the Internet. People can now collaborate, communicate, celebrate, commemorate, give their advice, and share their ideas around these virtual clans that have once again redefined social behavior, and therefore, once again, have redefined the term. The first attempt to organize and gather such social communities dates back to at least 2003, when www.tribe.net was launched.
Tribes on Twitter
Twitter tribes not only have mutual interests, but also share potentially subconscious language characteristics, as found in a 2013 study by researchers at Royal Holloway University in London and Princeton. Dr. John Bryden of the Royal Holloway University School of Biological Sciences states that it is possible to anticipate which community someone is likely to belong to, with accuracy up to 80 percent. This research shows that people try to join societies based on the same interests and hobbies.
To achieve this, publicly available messages were sent via Twitter to record conversations between two or more participants. As a result, each community can be characterized by its most used words. This approach can enrich the detection of new communities based on word analysis to automatically classify people within social networks. Tribal identification methods relied heavily on algorithms and techniques in statistical physics, computational biology, and network science.
Tribefinder takes a different approach. This system is capable of identifying tribal affiliations of Twitter users using deep learning and machine learning. The system establishes which tribes individuals belong to by analyzing their tweets and comparing their vocabulary. These tribal vocabularies are pre-generated based on the vocabulary of influential people and tribal leaders using keywords that express concepts, ideas, and beliefs.
Inlay Models and Long Short Term Memory
The last step in getting the system to learn about associating random individuals with specific tribes is to analyze the language that these influential tribal leaders use through deep learning. In doing so, classifiers are created using inlay models and LSTM (Long Short Term Memory). Specifically, these classifiers work by collecting the Twitter feeds of all users from the tribes Tribefinder is training on. In these, embedding is applied to assign words to vectors, which are then used as input for the following LSTM models. Tribefinder analyzes the individual’s use of words in their tweets and then assigns corresponding alternative realities, lifestyle, and recreational tribal affiliation based on similarities to specific tribal vocabularies.
Pure and Applied Research in Sociology
Researchers often differentiate between “pure” and “applied” research. Presumably, pure research has no direct purpose to add to the body of knowledge, while applied research is put toward a practical end, such as working for a marketing company to understand the relationship between race and consumption patterns or working for a government agency to study the reasons why poverty continues to exist. Of course, the line between pure and applied research is often blurred. For example, “pure” researchers at a university could obtain government funds to carry out their research projects, somewhat complicating their commitment to doing pure research. Outside of the academic world, sociologists apply their skills in a variety of settings. At Online-tesis.comwe are here to answer all your questions. Contact us without obligation.
Sociologists can be found working in a wide range of fields, including organizational planning, development and training; human resources management; industrial relationships; marketing; public relations; organizational research; and international business. In all these cases, they apply sociological theories and methods to understand social relationships and human behavior to advance the goals of the organization in which they work, be it a company, a government agency, or a non-profit organization.
Social types, or types of people, occupy a curious place in the history of sociology. There has never been any agreement on how they should be used, or what they are imported for. However, the problems surrounding its use are instructive, symptomatic of key ambivalences at the heart of the sociological enterprise. These ambivalences can help explain attempts to use social types for cultural diagnostic purposes, from the interesting portrayal of arbitrarily selected positions in the division of labor to the more ambitious guesses about the dominant “characters” of modern culture through sociological analysis.
Goldberg, C. A. (2012) ‘Robert Park’s Marginal Man: The Career of a Concept in American Sociology’, Laboratorium 4: 199–217.
Mauss, M. (1985) ‘The Person: A Category of the Human Mind’, in Carrithers, M., Collins, M., Lukes, S. (eds) The Category of the Person. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–25
Turner, C. (2010) Investigating Sociological Theory. London: Sage.
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