The Chicago Manual of Styleis made up of a set of academic writing rules.

This manual ofstandards to quote with Chicago-style, was first published in the University of Chicago Press in 1906 and currently has guides and advice on English grammar, spelling and typography (in its American variation).

In addition, it has bases around quotes or bibliographic references and even, some aspects concerning the edition.

This type of style establishes that when ideas from other authors are paraphrased or directly quoted to substantiate approaches that are being exposed in a text, it must be explicitly stated to whom these quotes belong.

However, in the case that proverbs or other familiar expressions are mentioned, you shouldn’t quote with Chicago style.

Texts quoted directly

Quote with Chicago style within the text, it should be done in case these expressions are brief and have a complete sentence at most.

On the contrary, the quotes must be separated from the text when they have more than 100 words or if they are comprised of two or more paragraphs, as well as in those cases in which it is required to use a format that is special.

Systems to document the sources used in the Chicago Style

To apply the standards to quote with Chicago style, there are two systems that allow documenting the sources used in research works, which are known as Notes System and Author-Year System.

Notes System

In this particular type of Chicago-style system to cite, the footnotes and the bibliography or the endnotes and the bibliography are combined, and you even have the option of using both types of notes and the bibliography.

This system is ideal to quote with Chicago style in articles that are in the area of humanities (Literature, Linguistics, Social Sciences, History, among others), because it offers ample space to comment on the sources that have been quoted.

When quoting with Chicago style, the notes, whether they are at the bottom of the page or at the end of the text, should be made with superscripts that are usually numbered and correspond to dimensions that can complement the information provided in the text.

However, in the case of notes that are translations or editions of classics, these will be linked to a page or line number.

So, if when quoting with Chicago-style are included the data of the notes in the bibliography, these should not be repeated because readers have the possibility to consult the bibliography for the details of each publication.

Author-year system

With this system to employ standards to quote with Chicago style, quotes must be inserted in the text, including the author’s name and the date on which the work that is being quoted in a parenthesis was published, and must have a correlate in the list of references.

When quoting with Chicago style, this system is preferably used for publications related to Social and Natural Sciences, but it also has the peculiarity that these can be perfectly adapted to any type of work.

When you are going to quote a source with Chicago-style, you have the possibility to place the notes at the foot of the page or at the end of the text.

Which are the differences between the Notes System and the Author-Year System?

In the Author-year System, there should be an entry in the list of references for each year-author quote that appears in the text, while in the Notes System it’s not mandatory that all the works are reflected in the bibliography, because this data can be provided in the notes.

However, it is important to note that a bibliography that has all the sources that are cited in the text, not only allows the reader to have a complete and general view as far as the sources are concerned, but also allows the use of the short forms that are used in the notes.

In the case of works that don’t have a bibliography or that is selected, each time a work is quoted for the first time, all the details must be written in a note and in the following quotes that have the same source, this must be done in abbreviated form.

How to add references in the bibliography?

In the notes placed at the foot of the page or at the end of the text, usually are quoted the author, the title of the work and then the other data of the publication, separating the elements by comma and the data of the publication has to be written in parentheses.

Thus, since they are the names of the authors, they must be presented in the order in which they normally tend to be written, that is, by writing the first name and then the last names.

In the case of main titles, they should be written in italics, while the secondary ones, which are usually chapters of books or magazine articles, as well as unpublished works, must be presented in round letters and using “quotation marks”

The terms of translator, editor, edition, volume, among others, as well as the edited and translated nominal forms, must be abbreviated.

Examples of Footnotes

Footnotes of books

Benjamin Barber, Strong Democracy (Berkeley and London: University of California Press, 1984).

Footnotes of books with more than two authors

Liam P. Unwin and Joseph Galloway, Peace in Ireland (Boston: Stronghope Press, 1990), 88.

Footnotes of magazines

Margaret Canovan, “Politics as Culture: Hannah Arendt and the Public Realm,” History of Political Thought 6, no. 3 (autumn 1985): 332.

Footnotes of edited books (compilations)

Janet E. Smith, “Moral Character and Abortion,” in Doing and Being: Readings in Moral Philosophy, eds. Joran Haber, Ken Follet and I. A. Newland (New York: Macmillan, 1993), 247.

Footnotes of translated books

Ben Jowett, “Introduction,” in Plato, The Republic, trad. Ben Jowett (York: Airmont, 1968), iix.

How to quote in the notes?

The quotes in notes have a format that is very similar to the bibliographic references, but in the first ones the authors appear normally arranged with the elements separated by the use of commas or parentheses.

For being the bibliography, the name of the first author is inverted and the elements are separated by points.

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Bibliographic References when quoting with the Chicago Style

Bibliographic References when quoting with the Chicago Style

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