The Modern Language Association (MLA) is the organization responsible for the style that bears his name, the MLA style. The MLA style is a style focused on all Social Sciences especially Humanities, Language and Literature.
The MLA style constitutes that the sources that are used to carry out the work are cited in the text. It is used a short citation method that allows the reader to identify the source and locate it in the reference list at the end of the paper.
How to quote the exact words from an information source?
You must place the quote in quotation marks, not exceeding 4 lines, and do not require special emphasis in the text, with a reference from the author and the page from which you have extracted the quote. You can append this data together or separately and outside or inside parentheses, depending on how you are working your text. When special emphasis is needed on text longer than 4 lines, the quotation should be included without quotation marks and in a text block separated from the rest with indentation (approximately 2.5 cm) and double-spaced.
- Literal quote that does not exceed 4 lines and that does not require special emphasis in the text
As Gimeno Sacristán points out, “the truth is that, in practice, schooling already intervenes in extra-academic time as we have seen with homework or homework” (117).
“Competences cannot be understood as something that one has or does not have, they do not represent specific states or achievements, but states in the process of evolution” (Gimeno Sacristán 29).
- Literal quote of more than 4 lines and requiring special emphasis on the text
In the final part of Lord of the Flies, Ralph and the other boys realize the horror of their actions:
The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (186)
How to indirectly cite a source of information?
By means of an indirect quote you can refer to the ideas of an author without needing to reproduce them literally, in this case, you have to mention their arguments in your own words and enter a quote that the author and the page collect to identify the source of information.
- In the appropriate place of the text you must include in parentheses the surname / s of the author and the page / s of the work, both data separated by a space.
The presence of salmon in Oregon rivers has been decreasing dramatically since the past decade (Lenz 27).
- If the author is part of the text, you only have to introduce the page / s in brackets.
Robert Lenz states that the presence of salmon in Oregon rivers has been decreasing dramatically since the past decade (27).
Work of several authors:
- When you cite a work that has 2 or 3 authors, you must include them all.
A study has shown that more and more teachers change their minds after their first year of practice (Pasamentier, Jage and Krulik 55).
- If you have 4 or more authors, you can include all or only the first one, then adding “et al.”.
Stutts, Smith, Cass, and Round argue that language development has important consequences for the development of certain parts of the brain (339).
Stutts et al. they argue that language development has important consequences for the development of certain parts of the brain (339).
Language development has important consequences for the development of certain parts of the brain (339).
Work of a corporate author:
- When the cited work has been prepared by a corporate author (Organism or Entity) that has a long name, it is recommended that it be part of the text so that the reading is not interrupted due to a long reference in parentheses.
According to a study sponsored by the National Research Council of the United States of America, the Chinese population has been increasing annually by more than 15 million since 1990 (15).
(UN, Economic Commission for Africa 79-86).
- When you quote an anonymous work, you must include its title in italics.
It is important that there is greater accessibility of climate data, as well as greater monitoring and study of environmental changes (Impact of global warming 6).
Two or more works by an author:
- If you cite 2 or more works by an author, you must enter the titles in italics of those works in the corresponding references.
(Frye, Anatomy 237)
(Frye, Double vision 85)
I work in several volumes:
- When you cite the information contained in a volume work, you must include, in addition to the author, the volume number separated by a colon and a space on the page / s consulted / s. However, if your quote refers to the entire volume, there is no need to pick up the page / s.
(Wellek 2: 1-10)
(Wellek, vol. 2)
Omissions, errors and comments:
- If you wish to omit a part of the cited text, you must always indicate it with an ellipsis, with a space before each one, as well as a space after the last one.
“The objectification of knowledge … defines its accessibility.”
- If there is an error in the quoted text, you must keep it, but warning the reader with the annotation (sic), if you insert it after the quote in quotation marks, or [sic] , if you put it within that quote.
“On October 5 we arrived in the city [sic] of Seville.”
- If you want to add a comment you must enter it in parentheses (), if you put it after the quote in quotation marks, or in square brackets , if you place it within the mentioned quote.
“Last year [el autor escribe en 1997] the statistics showed an alarming increase in the number of cases.”
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